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MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP

Management could be defined as the planning, organizing, leading and control of people working in an organization and the ongoing set and of tasks and activities they perform. The manager here is one who allocates, human, material and information resources in pursuit of an organization’s grade.
From the above, it can be deduced that irrespective of leading/leadership to be a fundamental part of management, the role(s) of a manager doesn’t include leadership because leadership is influencing others to work/act towards the attainment of a goal. Leadership models include
1. Traits - A leadership model based on the assumption that certain physical, social and personal characteristics are inherent in leaders
2. Behavioral model – This form of leadership focuses on differences in actions of effective and ineffective leaders. An example of behavioral model is theory X and Y. Where X is where leaders tell subordinates what’s expected of them, instruct them on how to perform their jobs, insist they meet certain standards, and make sure that everyone knows whose boss. The leader believes the typical employee dislikes work and would avoid it if possible, once direction whenever possible, managers must coerce employees to get them to work. Theory Y is a style where leaders consult with their subordinates, seek their opinions and encourage them to take part in planning and decision making. He assumes the employee like to work; employees who are committed to the company’s objectives will exercise self direction and self control. Employees learn to accept and even seek responsibility at work.
2b. Employment model – Sharing influence and control with followers.

3. Contingency model – This is based on the idea that the situation determined the best style to use.

Leading as a function of management is the communicating with, motivating others to perform the tasks necessary to achieve organizational goals. Stephen Covey in his book “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People” Illustrates that leadership, whose basic task is to increase the standard of living and the quality of life for all stakeholders, comes first before management. Management: How can I best accomplish certain things? (Check above definition of a manager) But leadership says: what are the things I want to accomplish? Management is doing things right; while leadership is doing the right things. Leadership is a function, generating a mission statement, getting the core values while management is the form that follows it.

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